High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Wheat Interplanting Spearmint

Chen Guoyi

(Agricultural Technology Center of the Eighth Division of the Eighth Agricultural Division, Bole City, Xinjiang 833405)

Abstract : This paper describes in detail the characteristics of spearmint, objectively describes the spearmint planting performance in the country, systematically summarizes the planting experience of the spearmint in the past three years, and explores a complete set of winter suitable for planting in northern Xinjiang. Spring wheat interplanting spearmint cultivation techniques, pest control methods and processing techniques.

Key words: Spearmint, ecological habits, wheat intercropping, cultivation techniques

Eighty-four agriculturists of the Fifth Agricultural Division, with a cumulative temperature of 3106°C for years ≥10°C, an average annual temperature of 5.6°C, an average daily difference of 12~14°C, an annual frost-free period of 168 hours, an annual rainfall of 181.5mm, a steam reduction ratio of 8.5:1, calendar year The average sunshine duration is 2819.3 hours, which is a typical continental arid desert climate. In order to meet the market demand in 2002, the experiment planted 2hm2 spearmint. After nearly four years of expansion, the area has reached 100hm2, producing spearmint oil 7.8kg/667m2, output value of 1092 yuan/667m2, and net income of 642 yuan/667m2. Its products are mainly used in medicine, food, cosmetics, tobacco and other industries. As a result, the development of spearmint production has become a new way for the adjustment of farm planting structure and increase of employees' income. For nearly four years, my group has obtained some practical experience in spearmint planting as follows for your reference.

1 Characteristics of spearmint

1.1 Botanical characteristics

Spearmint (Herba Menthae Spicatac), alias green mint, Lamiaceae, perennial herb, plant height 0.5-1.1m, stem square, many branches, dark green, leaf opposite, elliptic-lanceolate, base of leaf blade Gland glands, without petiole, flowers as terminal spikes, zygomatic linear, green hair, corolla purple, seeds oval, black, stems and leaves rich in spearmint oil. Ingredients: Anisidine, limonene, phelletrene, etc.

1.2 Biological characteristics

Spearmint has a strong adaptability to environmental conditions and can grow in all regions of the country. It generally prefers sunny, warm and humid environments. It has strong heat and cold resistance, and it can still grow normally when the temperature is above 30°C. Under the low temperature of -20~30°C, the underground rhizome can still survive. In early spring, when the local table temperature reaches 5°C, the soil begins to germinate. The seedlings can tolerate a low temperature of -5°C. Generally, the suitable temperature is 25°C to 30°C. The greater the temperature difference between day and night, the more favorable the accumulation of essential oils in plants. Spearmint hi damp, but afraid of earthworms, the general field capacity of 75% in the more conducive to growth, but the different water requirements during the growth period, seedling and flowering needs more water, the second water requirement is smaller. Spearmint does not require strict soil requirements. Generally, soil is suitable for growth. In particular, sandy loam and loam are more suitable for growth. Soil salinity is too large. Plants are short and grow slowly, affecting yield. General requirements for soil pH values ​​of 6.5 to 7.5 are most suitable.

2 Spearmint cultivation techniques

2.1 Preparation before Broadcasting

Spearmint before sowing, the soil should be deep turned, generally required to reach 25 ~ 28cm, and then fine to achieve (six-character standard). Applying basal fertilizer, organic fertilizer 1000kg/667m2 per acre, in order to improve the utilization of land, it is best to use winter wheat interplanting cultivation method, wheat planting should use 24 rows of planter ditch planting, a 6 ditch, each ditch 4 Line wheat, ditch 60cm, spring in the winter wheat thawing, spring wheat can be planted on the ridge. Mechanical force to open a good 6~8cm deep sowing ditch to be sown on the ridge, spacing 20cm.

2.2 Variety selection

Spearmint varieties with large leaves and leaves of spearmint, should generally choose large leaves leave spearmint, large leaf spearmint has strong adaptability, rapid growth, stems with high oil content, good quality.

2.3 Seeding

General use of rhizome breeding and branch propagation two ways. Local root spears of spearmint were excavated at the end of March and early April. Fresh, robust, disease-free roots were selected and cut into root segments of 5 to 10 cm. They were placed in well-opened planting ditch at intervals of 10 cm, and then dredged. Soil, the general field needs to be rooted 150kg/667m2.

Transplanting ramets was done in Daejeon in the previous year. When the seedlings grew to about 10 cm in size, the root stalks were dug up and irrigated and transplanted. This method was generally used for seedlings and ridges in the field.

2.4 Weeding and weeding

After wheat is harvested, it should be cultivated in a timely manner with a depth of 12 to 18 cm to prevent weed damage. If spearmint plants thrive and underground spruce spreads, mechanical cultivators should not be used to prevent root damage. If weeds are removed, they can be removed manually or controlled by drugs. Chemical control: It can be used 12.5% ​​of straw can be 60g per mu, dilute 30kg or 5% fine grass dipped in emulsifiable concentrate 70g, watered 30kg spray to prevent weeds, crabgrass, setaria, reeds and other weeds. When the pesticide is applied, the humidity in the field is large, the weeds are young, and the beneficial agent absorbs and conducts the drug, so the control effect is high.

2.5 Reasonable fertilization, timely topping, scientific irrigation

2.5.1 Rational fertilization

Spearmint has a long growing period, and it can generally receive two crops a year. Therefore, it is a crop that requires water and requires more fertilizer. In addition to applying base fertilizer before turning, it should be top dressing 2 or 3 times during the entire growth period. In mid-April, when the plant height is 10cm, it is possible to apply urea by 5~8kg/667m2 to the straw seedlings, re-apply the branching fertilizers in mid-May, and use N and P in combination. The application of phosphate fertilizer is 10kg/667m2 and urea is 10kg/667m2. In order to meet the need for plant growth, the third application of phosphate fertilizer was 10kg/667m2 and urea was 15kg/667m2 in the middle of June to promote oil increase in spearmint and stalk.

2.5.2 Timely capping

When the plant grows to 20 cm, the top heart is removed promptly, which weakens the apical dominance, promotes the growth and development of the axillary buds, increases the number of lateral branches, increases the number of branches and leaves, and thus increases the oil yield per unit area.

2.5.3 Reasonable irrigation

Spearmint is hi moist, but it is also afraid of embarrassment. Planting fields requires flat and well-drained water. In early April, irrigation water will be raised. In mid-May, according to the local climate and soil type, the amount of filling and time will be determined to ensure that the field does not dry up. The irrigation volume in mid-June should be small to facilitate the storage of essential oil in the plant.

2.6 timely harvest

Spearmint is usually harvested twice a year. For the first time in mid-July, during the early flowering season, 60% of Daejeon plants have two or three round inflorescences. The highest oil content is in the stems and leaves of the plants. This is the best harvest time. When harvesting, it should be harvested continuously in the morning and harvested for the highest oil content of the plant. Harvesting of rainy, windy and weak sunlight has a great impact on production. After harvesting, drying in the ground to 70% dry can be processed by distillation. After the harvest of the first branch of orchids, the field weeds should be removed to loosen the soil and manually adjust the density of the field to promote the seedlings and seedlings of the second seedlings, and to reasonably apply water, fertilize and increase the yield of the second crop.

2.7 Pest Control

The main diseases of spearmint in Daejeon are: rust and brown spot disease. It can be sprayed with 1000 times liquid of triadimefon or mancozeb. At the same time, the ventilation and light transmission in the field can be strengthened to reduce the humidity in the field and the diseased plants can be cleared in time to prevent spread.

The main insect pests are: ground tigers and aphids. Control methods can be used to kill tigers by poisoning baits, and 1500 times liquid salamanders control aphids. The effect is generally above 80%.

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