The southern grape was only sporadically cultivated before the 1980s. Since the success of the Kyoho grape cultivation in the 1980s, the area has expanded rapidly and it has become an emerging large-grain fresh grape product production area in China. In recent years, southern grape development has been very rapid. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture, in 2000, 13 southern provinces and regions (excluding Taiwan Province) had a grape cultivation area of ​​57,300 hectares. By 2003, they had soared to 80,900 hectares, and a net increase of 23,600 hectares in three years. The grape output increased from 714,000 tons in 2000 to 971,000 tons in 2003, a net increase of 255,000 tons. Regardless of the output or area, the South has occupied one-fifth of the country. Among them, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Hunan, and Guangxi provinces have cultivated more than 100,000 mu. Viticulture has evolved from quantity-oriented production that focuses on production to quality-oriented production with high quality. How to achieve high-quality cultivation of grapes, the following views are for reference only.
1, the main factors affecting the quality of southern grape berry

(1) Effect of ecological conditions on berry quality

The ecological conditions in the South have many unfavorable factors for the quality of grape berry, such as excessive annual rainfall, insufficient sunshine during Meiyu period, temperature of fruit ripening period, acidic soil, typhoon rain and serious diseases. Among them, the maturation period coincides with the high-temperature season of July-August, and it is one of the major ecological factors that affect the quality of berries.

During the ripening of southern grape berry, not only the average monthly temperature exceeds 28°C, but also the maximum temperature in many days exceeds 35°C, and the nighttime temperature often exceeds 25°C. The fruit ripening process is too fast and the peel color is poor, which affects the quality. Taking the Kyoho grape as an example, the night temperature during the softening and ripening of the fruit has a great influence on the size of the fruit, the sugar content and the coloration of the peel. Tests have shown that when the daytime temperature is set to 30°C and the nighttime temperature is 15°C, the best coloration is. At 20°C, the fruit growth is the greatest. At 25°C, the coloration is not only poor, but the sugar content of the fruit is also decreased significantly. When it was increased to 36°C, the sugar content decreased even more (Figure). This shows that the night temperature of fruit ripening time can not be too high, must maintain a certain temperature difference between day and night. The relationship between fruit coloring and nighttime temperature during ripening period was further studied. It was found that when the night temperature was 15°C, the anthocyanin formed well and the coloration above 20°C was obviously poor. The anthocyanin content at 25°C was only 22% of the former. This phenomenon is related to abscisic acid (ABA) in berries, which are mature hormones that promote maturation and coloration. When the temperature is low at night, the content of ABA in fruits is high, which favors the coloration; at night, when the temperature is high, the cytokines increase and the ABA decreases, which adversely affects the coloration of the fruits.

The berry color is often an important indicator for evaluating the quality of Kyoho. In general, when the peel reaches black-purple, the Brix is ​​15 to 17%, when it is purple, it is 12 to 15%, and when it is greenish, it is less than 12%. Conversely, only the fruit When the sugar content reaches 15% to 17%, the peel can turn black and purple, which indicates that the sugar is closely related to pigment formation in the skin.

In the production practice, it generally reflects the difficulty of coloring the southern grapes. This should be solved through the method of controlling the production and raising the sugar content of the fruit; the other solution is to advance the maturity to 6-7 months or postponed to 9 through the cultivation of facilities. Between October and October, it avoids maturity during high night temperatures.

(2) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on quality.

The sand culture test of Kyoho found that the normal concentration of nitrogen in the sand culture fluid is maintained at 80PPM and the sugar content of the fruit is 14.9%. If the fruit content is increased to l60ppm one month before the fruit is softened, excessive shoots occur due to high nitrogen content. The new shoots could not stop growing in time, which seriously affected the quality of the berries. The sugar content of the fruits was only 11.8% (see table); it increased to 160 ppm in 1 month after softening, and had no adverse effect on fruit quality. This suggests that nitrogen fertilizer should not be excessive during fruit development. The soil in the Yangtze River Delta region is fertile, and excessive nitrogen application has seriously affected grape quality. How to adjust measures to local conditions, soil testing formulations, see the production and fertilization, it is worth further discussion.

(3) Impact of production on quality

The yield and quality depend on the leaf area, and the degree of production of the leaf/fruit ratio is often used as an evaluation index. The leaf area is relatively insufficient, and photosynthetic products are less, which is detrimental to the quality of the fruit. Take Kyoho as an example. The normal leaf-fruit ratio should be leaves: Ears = 15 to 20:1, that is, each leaf can provide 1.5 to 2 fruits. With too much production, the ratio of leaf to fruit must fall, the quality of the fruit is also reduced, and the coloration of the fruit is also poor. This is even more pronounced in the highly productive Jufeng Park.

How to control production and ensure quality is an important technical issue in the current grape development. If the ratio of leaf to fruit ratio at the end of the first new shoot growth is another important index for controlled yield cultivation, the number of ear per unit area is often calculated in terms of shelf area. This indicator is more in line with production practice, but also easy to practice. Taking Kempi as an example, if the target is 1000kg/667m2, then 1.5kg of fruit should be produced per square meter of shelf surface, and 3.8-4.3 ears/M2 should be reserved for each panicle of 350-400g. Straw frames can also be calculated from the frame area.

When the peak-to-ear ratio of Jufeng Garden is insufficient, the ratio of leaf to pan can be adjusted to the appropriate ratio through two channels: first, sparse cropping and picking, to reduce the burden, and secondly, to properly maintain the secondary shoot without affecting the ventilation and light transmission. Increase the blades.

2、Technical ways to control production and cultivation

Controlling production is the most important and most fundamental goal for the directional cultivation and management of vineyards. A grower must reasonably determine his own output and quality control indicators for the purpose of obtaining the best benefits based on market conditions. The way to control production is to implement the directional management of technology, that is, to determine the specific direction and target of a certain technology implementation based on the target output.

(1) Reasonable retention, adjusting the proportion of results

There are too many tips left during summer trimming, and the resulting imbalance in branch proportions is a more common phenomenon in production. The number of new poles per unit shelf is not as good as possible, and the density is the key to ensuring ventilation and light transmission and robust growth of fruits. The proportion of reasonable shoots in the new shoots is also an important measure for controlling the production and cultivation, and the ratio of shoots and nutrients should generally be controlled at 2:1 to 1:1. There should be a few new shoots per square meter of shelf surface, which can be predicted from the number of fruits per square meter. As mentioned above, taking Kyphoon in the flat as an example, if 3.8 to 4.3 spikes per square meter are taken, then 3.8 to 4.3 roots (only one ear per fruiting branch) and 1.9 to 2.2 roots of vegetative shoots (fruits: nutrition) are required. Branch = 2:1). The total number of shoots per square meter is 5.7-6.5, which is about 3800-4300 per mu.

(2) Spike plastic surgery

Spike plasticity is an important technical measure to control the size of the ear, increase the seed setting rate, and promote the neatness of the ear shape. It is also an important part of the control of production and cultivation. This technique has not yet been adequately respected in many places, resulting in different sizes and loss of commercial quality. Spike plasticity is usually implemented about one week before flowering. The operation method of shaping is to cut the large spikes of the sub-spike and its vicinity, leaving the tip of the spike. The degree of plasticity is due to variety and control objectives. For example, the number of grains per panicle of Kyoho grape is controlled to be about 35 to 40, and the tip of about 3.5 to 4 cm in length can be left when shaping. Another example is the Rizamat grape. If the target weight of the panicle is controlled to be about 750 g, then the number of grains per panicle is 60-80 grains, and the length of the panicle tip should be about 5-6 cm. If the tips of the spikes are too slender, they can pick up a small part and generally do not need to pick up the tips.

(3) Thinning Spikes and Picking

One of the most direct and most important cultivation and technical measures to achieve the control of production, including the operation of flowering, fruiting, and picking. Inflorescences are carried out before flowering, and some species have intricate inflorescences, such as Victoria and Odia seedless. The sparse spikes are immediately carried out after the end of the fruit drop, leaving a fruit with a good fruit set and a spike-shaped garden.

The scheduled production control index is the first step in fruit thinning. The output indicators vary according to soil quality, fertilizer, age, and management level and cannot be stereotyped. As a high-quality cultivation, the output of Kyoho grapes should generally be controlled below 1000kg/mu, and that of Fujiminori is 1250kg/mu. In general, Eurasian grape varieties in greenhouses should be controlled at about 800kg/mu, and a few high-yield products such as seedless white chicken hearts and Riza. Matt should not exceed 1000kg/mu. The second step should be to convert the yield control index into the yield per unit shelf or plant, and then calculate the ear retention per unit shelf based on the standard ear weight of the variety as the target of field operations. In practical operation, the plants with less than the target number of spikes need not have fruit thinning, but too much fruit should be firmly fruit thinned. When the ear is sparse, a good ear is selected according to the reserved ear target, and the deformed and loose ear are removed. To support the principle of leaving only one ear per fruit branch, the weak branches and the ears on the preparation branches should be completely removed. If the amount of fertility exceeds the target, some spikes of moderately strong fruit should be removed. In addition, the proportion of fruiting branches must also meet the predetermined goal after fruit thinning.

Currently, there are many controversies in the promotion of fruit thinning technology. The main point is that there is no premium price in the market, and the benefits cannot be guaranteed. Of course, the control of production and cultivation requires the voluntary implementation of the masses, but the quality control of the production of the Fangchi Spring Township Fangjisheng Vineyards in Zhenjiang, Zhenjiang, this time provides us with successful examples, regardless of the control of production cultivation, market cultivation, branding, cooperative organization, and The economic benefits are worth our reference.

There are many applications for picking techniques in southern grape cultivation, such as extra large grain cultivation in Fujieda, which is completed one week after fruit set. The goal of picking grain is 30 grains per ear. Generally, the picking targets of the general cultivar varieties are controlled at 30-40 grains per panicle. For some Eurasian species, it is mainly used to remove small fruits and stamens, so that the spike shape and fruit are neat. In the field operation, small scissors with a long and narrow blade should be used to cut and pick the grains from the small pedicel. Be careful not to injure the remaining fruits.

3, tree phase diagnostic indicators

Appraisal of fertilizer and water control, especially if the application of nitrogen fertilizer is appropriate, can be judged from the appearance state of tree growth, namely the state of the tree. According to certain indicators of tree growth and development to predict and determine the state of grape's solid state is known as the tree phase diagnosis. The concept of tree phase diagnosis originates from Japan and is widely used in high-quality cultivation of Kyoho grapes in Japan.

(1) The growth and tree diagnosis of new shoots

The fruitfulness of Kyoho directly affects the appearance and quality of the ear. Kyoho grew more prosperous before flowering and the seed setting rate was worse. The rate of seeding in the golden mean is relatively high. What is the best rate of new seedlings before flowering? According to studies, the ideal shoot growth is after 2-3 leaflets are developed, then it quickly expands to 10 to 12 leaves, and then stretches. The length should be slow down to an average length of 40-60 cm before flowering. If the length exceeds this index, it means that the growth is too prosperous. Therefore, using the strength of the shoot growth before flowering, the pros and cons of the fruit can be judged and predicted. Other growth indicators of the stem are also related to fruit set, and can also be used to determine the fruit of Kyoho. Japanese data also reported shoot growth indicators used for the diagnosis of fruit quality. It is believed that 80% of new shoots should stop growing 50 days after flowering, and the length of new shoots should be between 60 and 120 cm after 70 days of flowering. The second new shoot on the branch). This state is an indicator of good fruit quality.

(2) Diagnosis of leaf and tree phases

According to Japan's Kyoho grape's tree phase seizing standard, the length of the seventh leaf on the main shoot before flowering should be between 10 and 13cm, and the leaf area should be less than 130cm2. If this index is exceeded, it means that the result is unstable and the balance between growth and solidity will be lost. The blade is an indicator of the tree phase that is easier to visualize. Where there are too many nitrogen fertilizers and excessively trimmed Kyoho, the leaves can easily exceed the index. Branches are long and the bigger the leaves, the easier it is to drop fruit. On the contrary, the leaves are small and robust but they are normal Kyoho trees.

The diagnosis of the tree should cause the grape industry in our country, especially the grape planting area of ​​Jufeng in the south. It has important guiding significance for high-quality cultivation of Kyoho.

4. Trends and Quality Cultivation of Grape Varieties

The development of table grapes requires quality varieties. From the trend of similar grapevines with similar climate in recent years, the area of ​​Kyoho has risen from 20% to 32% in the past 10 years. Pioneer grapes have rapidly increased to 6%, while the Fujioka and other poor quality Koshihikari varieties have increased. less. Our situation is somewhat similar. Kyoho is still the main cultivar in the southern region, and Fujisawa has developed in certain areas. However, there is no large-scale cultivation of high quality first peaks.

The main development directions of the southern table grape varieties: (1) to the development of large grain quality, in the mature period requires medium and early maturing varieties. (2) The demand for facility varieties has risen sharply. The varieties of high-end Eurasian species that can adapt to the South will rapidly increase (3) to the direction of non-nuclear and denuclearization. Driven by the market, high-quality, non-nuclear, large-grained varieties will gradually develop. For instance, Cuifeng, Pioneer Grapes, and triploid varieties will have a certain amount of development space.

In plant viticulture, Eurasian breeds change rapidly. From the early crimson and black roses, there have been the development of nuclear-free white chicken hearts, Richarda, Jingyu, 87-1, Christmas Rose, Italian, Beauty, and late red. Among the developing countries are Pink Yadumi (Yafu Rosa), Auguste, Victoria, and Red. The history of cultivation of European and Asian species in southern facilities is relatively short, and there is a lack of longer-term adaptability trials. Blindly believing that advertising in the north is the reason why some orchards have lost their cultivation and changed rapidly.

The hybrid breeds in Europe and the United States also play an important role in the cultivation of facilities. Since the market in the south has been recognized by the Jufeng breeds, the quality and fruit set in the facilities have been greatly improved, and the selling price has increased. Therefore, facilities such as Kyoho and Fujisawa are in use. There are many cultivations in China, and the idea that the type of grapes in the facility must be Eurasian grape is wrong. In the facility cultivation, there was a certain cultivated area in the no-nuclear early red (86–11) and Jingya of the Jufeng system, and the area has decreased or no longer increased because of unsatisfactory quality; Good quality, cultivation has a rising trend.

In recent years, a number of high-quality giant-spike varieties have been introduced from Japan, such as Xiahe (triploid, non-nuclear), Cuifeng (nuclear-free varieties), Heifeng (easily-colored varieties), and Ampoule (non-nuclearized varieties), etc. It is worth our attention. Among them, the sugar content in Xiahei is as high as 20 to 21%. The flavor is rich, sweet and delicious, and the quality is extremely high. Zhangjiagang Shenyuan Grape Company has planted large areas. However, the black and white fruit must be treated with gibberellin, which is generally only about 5g, and good (Shenyuan Grape Company) can reach 7-9g. Due to its small fruit size, thick skin, and its appearance like a huge peak, how market evaluation is still unclear, if we want to develop this species, it is necessary to cultivate the market. Another species, Cuifeng, is a mid-maturing variety with a yellow-green peel. The average weight of unnucleated fruit after introduction in Shanghai can reach 16-18 g, with a maximum of 22 g. There is no other variety comparable to the size of seedless grains (nuclearization). The first peak grapes in Shanghai about 12 ~ 15g). Cuifeng fruit's sugar content is 16 to 17%, the meat is hard and the quality is superior. This kind of cultivar is easy to denucleate, with less side effects such as stem sclerotization, and may have a certain future in the south, and further observation is needed.

Due to the diversity of ecology in the southern region, there are a large number of varieties introduced and the name is not standardized. Newly-developed vineyards should not be subject to change in the selection of varieties. Try to communicate through local or siblings in the same ecological area and ask for local scientific research. The agency and agricultural technology department decided again.

5. Facilities cultivation and grape quality

The cultivation of grape sheds in southern China began in the 1990s. Taking Shanghai as an example, the total area of ​​viticulture is about 1,600 hm2. In 1996, the shed was no more than 10 hm2. After that, it grew rapidly and reached about 100 hm2 by 2000. It is now estimated to have exceeded 500 hm2. The facilities are mainly single-building sheds, as well as a series of sheds and small sheds. Facilities Grapes have great development in Zhejiang and Jiangsu, such as Jiaxing, Haiyan, Wenling and Zhangjiagang. The rapid development of the facility's grapes not only improves the quality of the grapes, it is conducive to the development of pollution-free cultivation, and the production efficiency is significantly higher than that of the open field.

At present, there are two main types of facility cultivation in the south: namely, the "promoting cultivation in the early stage and avoiding the rain in the later stage" and the simple cultivation mode of rain-fence cultivation. The former refers to the early spring film-covered insulation, while the latter retains the apical membrane to shelter from rain, which is suitable for high-quality cultivation of early-middle-maturing grape varieties and the Jufeng grapes. The latter is a cultivation method that covers the upper part of the grapevine to prevent rain from getting wet. Mainly used for high-quality cultivation of late-maturing varieties. The role of facility cultivation in improving the quality of southern grape is very significant and can be summarized as follows:

(1) It has the function of sheltering from rain, reducing the spread of diseases, helping to reduce pesticides and producing pollution-free safe and healthy foods.

(2) Broaden the range of options for cultivable grape varieties. The high-grade and high-quality Eurasian varieties that were originally not suitable for open cultivation can also be planted.

(3) Change the cultivation environment, the grape sugar content increases, the acidity decreases, the quality increases, and the fruit size increases.

(4) Regulating the fruit growth period, promoting and sheltering rain can be achieved in the morning and in the autumn, and the fruit supply period is elongated.

(5) Increased resistance to natural disasters such as heavy rain and increased fruit appearance and fruit rate.

We have been observing the quality of Kyoho grapes that have been cultivated in greenhouses for two years. The refractometer sugar content and solid-acid ratio of the Kyoho fruits that were cultivated in greenhouses from harvesting to physiological maturity were consistently higher than those of open fields. This difference was significant in 1999 in rainy years, and the rainfall from March to September in the year was up. At 1356.3mm, the sugar content of Kyoho is 0.4 to 1.2% higher than that of exposed land; and in the rainy year of 2000, the rainfall at the same period was only 729.7mm. This year, the refractometer sugar content and solid-acid ratio of the Kyphoon Kyoho is almost the same as the gap between the late mature stage and the open field giant peak. Disappearing, this shows that the more the greenhouse facilities increase the apparent sugar content in rainy years. The reason is obviously related to the soil moisture. In the rainy years, the exposed soil moisture is definitely more than the soil in the greenhouse, while the drought-dry years have little difference between the soil moisture inside and outside the greenhouse. This result not only suggests that we should pay attention to drainage and covering of plastic film and other flood prevention measures in order to improve the quality of grapes during ripening. It can also be explained that rainfall in the south, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Hunan is more than that in Shanghai, and it should be implemented more vigorously. Greenhouse cultivation.

6, growth regulators and denuclearization technology

Phytohormones are used on grape inflorescences or fruits, with the main purpose of increasing the fruit size or performing a non-nuclear cultivation. The hormone used is mainly gibberellin (GA), which is produced after purification with fungal fermentation products. In addition, there is a large amount of Pyridoxime (CPPU), which is a chemically synthesized phenylurea growth regulator.

(1) About fruit enlargement

Gibberellin (GA3) is the most widely used grape fruit enlarger. GA3 can be used to increase fruit size in grape seedless varieties, and they are usually treated once after flowering. The concentration is usually 50 to 200 mg/L. The suitable period for use is 10-18 days after full bloom. The method of use is to soak in the ear. In addition there is a type of triploid grape varieties, these varieties need GA3 treatment twice to get the fruit, the first treatment is to ensure normal fruit set, in the full flowering process; the second treatment in the flower after every 10-15 This time, this time to promote the expansion of berries, the treatment concentration is generally 25-100mg/L. GA3 treatment is a key technique for triploid grapevine fruit and fruit enlargement.

Nucleated grapes can also be used GA3, especially in extra large vines. The treatment is generally performed once, and the time is usually 10 to 15 days after flowering. The concentration is usually 25 mg/L. On the Kyoho grape, the southern fruit of Kyoho's ear appeared serious granules, and the small grains were non-nuclear fruit caused by poor fertilization. This phenomenon was particularly likely to occur in years when the growth tendency was excessive and the flowering weather was abnormal. Timely use of GA3 treatment to increase the size of non-nuclear kernels into commercial fruit has become a commonly used production method in the southern Jufeng grape production area.

CPPU has a more significant promoting effect on grape berry swelling, and also has an effect of improving fruit set, such as 10 mg/LCPPU treatment on Fujiminori grapes, with an average fruit size of 16.6 g, and 25 mg/L GA3 alone. The average weight of the treated fruit was only 13.5g. CPPU use concentration should not be higher than 10mg/kg, otherwise it is prone to produce side effects such as delayed ripening, poor coloration, and decreased sugar content. Mixing with GA3 has the effect of improving the use of CPPU and reducing the effect of the effect. It is advisable to add 25 mg/L GA3 with 5 mg/L CPPU on Fujiminori grapes.

Accurate scientific use of hormones is an important measure to improve the quality of grape fruits. However, in order to pursue mega-fruits in grape production, excessive use of hormones has produced many negative effects on grape quality. If multiple times or over-concentration is used, problems such as threshing, fruit cracking, fruit non-colouring, reduced sugar content, lighter flavor and poor commercial quality are caused. In addition, if the scope of use is arbitrarily expanded, it is also used in species that are not necessary to use, such as most varieties of nuclear grapes, especially diploid grape seeds, and many hormones secreted by themselves. Hormones are not only ineffective, but also have side effects such as stiff fruit, hardened fruit stems, and fruit cracking, which are not worth the candle. The idea of ​​using fruit enlargement as a panacea is not desirable. The current pollution-free cultivation has been increasingly valued, and establishing the concept of accurate and scientific use of hormones is of great significance for high-quality viticulture.

(2) Non-nuclear cultivation techniques

The use of GA3, etc. to induce nuclear grapes to become seedless grapes and related cultivation techniques, referred to as the denuclearization technique. After the denucleation, not only the seedless grapes are obtained, but also the fruit ripening can reach 10 to 21 days in advance, and the berry meat is slightly hardened and has better flavor. Japan's rapid spread after the successful application of Roselle grapes has been very effective.

The technology of denuclearization of grapes consists of three elements, namely variety selection, pharmaceutical treatment and supporting cultivation techniques. These three elements require a complete set of denuclearization technologies and are indispensable. Variety selection is a prerequisite for the success of a nuclear-free cultivation. The varieties suitable for non-nuclear cultivation should have the following conditions at the same time: (1) The non-nuclear rate should be higher than 90%, and most varieties can meet this condition. (2) GA3 had no or minimal side effects on the cob. Where there are cobs twisted, corked, fruit stems thickening hardening, causing hair loss and other berry berries are not suitable for the cultivation of non-nuclear. (3) The nucleus-free fruit should be similar in size to the nucleus of the same variety. (4) The denuclearization effect is stable and is less affected by the environment, year, and cultivation conditions. Only those varieties that can satisfy the above four conditions can be denuclearized. The success of the denuclearization production includes Rose, Pioneer, Bud A, and Kyoho. Among them, the stability of Kyoho is relatively poor and only some applications are applied. In addition, there are still a number of varieties that are being tested and have not yet been finalized.

The drug treatment is performed in two parts. The purpose of the first treatment is to induce the production of non-nuclear fruit, which is the core of the technology and consists of several factors such as the main system, auxiliary agent, concentration and processing time. (1) Regarding the main agent and additives, GA3 is always the main agent that induces no-nuclear fruit production. In order to increase the effect, adjuvants added to GA3 include PCPA (4-CPA), streptomycin (SM), BA, and CPPU. The actual application of PCPA and BA has so far been less. Streptomycin can reduce the sclerosis of the ear stem and corkification, thereby weakening the side effects of GA3. CPPU expands GA3's suitability for the first time, improves fruit set, and facilitates production operations. (2) The concentration of GA3 used is 100 mg/L for Rosea, and 25 mg/L for Tetraploid grapes such as Pioneer and Jufeng. The SM concentration was 100 to 400 mg/L, and the CPPU was 1 to 5 mg/L. (3) The processing time is divided into two types: one is represented by Roselle grapes and treated with GA3 two weeks before full bloom; the other is represented by the pioneer of tetraploid grapes and is first processed after flowering, that is, in full bloom. It is not processed once with GA3. For the giant tetraploid, it should be 2 to 4 days earlier than Pioneer's late flowering stage. The use of agents should be taken to dip the entire spike, spraying should not be applied.

The second treatment of the drug is to enlarge the fruit and make it to normal size. The treatment time is 10 days apart from the first treatment. The drugs used are mainly GA3 and CPPU, or a mixture of both. The use concentration is similar to the above-mentioned concentration that promotes fruit enlargement.

With the technology of denuclearization and cultivation, the objective of maintaining tree vigor, orderly growing fruit branches and uniform inflorescence size should be achieved. Therefore, non-nuclear cultivation should adopt long-dry pruning, pruning of short shoots, control of yield, flower ear shaping and other techniques. If these technologies are not matched, they cannot be cultivated without nuclear weapons.

At present, this technology has a small amount of applications in the south, mainly including the first peak, Beijing Asia, and Cuifeng, but strictly speaking, they have not yet reached the requirements for denuclearization and cultivation, and further trials and acceptance of circulation are required. There are also many reports on the practical application of denuclearization in China. From the author's criteria, most of them are difficult to identify. Since denuclearization imposes high requirements on varieties, the limitations are great, and blind applications will incur failure. More than a decade ago, the case of the denuclearization of Kyoho occurred in Jiangqiao, Jiading, Shanghai. At that time, an expert from a foreign country engaged in the denuclearization of the Kyoho in a large area of ​​the Jiangqiao-Vineyard, due to the denuclearization of the Kyoho. The fruit stems are hardened and threshed and suffer serious losses due to poor product circulation. This year, the author was invited to visit a vineyard in Zhejiang and saw the same scene again. This time it was used on a large area of ​​Jingyu Grape. It is said that before the application, he went to Shandong to see the site of the denuclearized Jingyu. Zhejiang now circulates a species called “Seedless No. 4”, which is said to be numbered after a nuclear-free variety has been cultivated without a nuclear plant. As the author has not seen it before and has not seen any relevant information, he dared not make comments. However, in accordance with the rules of the grape science community, the denuclearized grape has its original name, such as Xianfeng, Rose Lu, and Cuifeng. None of them have been renamed as a nuclear-free one after denuclearization. It is important to know that the varieties known as seedless in the grape industry must be genuine natural seedless varieties, such as non-nuclear white, non-nuclear white chicken hearts, and excellent non-nuclear. It is obviously wrong to call a nucleated variety “Nuke No. 4” and it is mistaken for a non-nuclear species. From the unstandardized name, the author is full of doubts about "Noncore 4". Since denuclearization is limited by a variety of factors such as variety, cultivation, site conditions, and even years, there is no complete test data for many years or more and one must not rely on lobbying and propaganda by others. However, after all, there is a high content of technology for the cultivation of non-nuclear grapes. If you are interested, you can do it yourself for several years and try to expand the application after it is stable.

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